Henry was born at the royal Château de Fontainebleau, the fourth son of King Henry II and Catherine de' Medici. 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[27] The Polish-Lithuanian parliament had been urged by Anna Jagiellon, the sister of the recently deceased king Sigismund II Augustus, to elect him based on the understanding that Henry would wed Anna afterward. Ancient History Encyclopedia. Henry III There were some good points to Henry, at least from posterity’s view. The son of the unpopular King John of England (r. 1199-1216 CE), Henry was immediately faced with the ongoing Barons' War which had been fuelled by discontent over John’s rule and his failure to honour the Magna Carta charter of liberties. Under Salic Law, the next heir to the throne was Protestant Henry of Navarre, a descendant of Louis IX (Saint Louis). Henry was nine when his father died and he became king. Some Rights Reserved (2009-2020) under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike license unless otherwise noted. Crawford, Katherine B., "Love, Sodomy, and Scandal: Controlling the Sexual Reputation of Henry III", This page was last edited on 11 November 2020, at 20:31. Why don't libraries smell like bookstores? However, the king quickly gained a reputation for being indecisive and easily swayed. Louis had invaded southern England and captured many of its prime castles, including the Tower of London. [citation needed], The royal children were raised under the supervision of Diane de Poitiers.[2]. This charter of liberties established that even the sovereign was subject to the rule of law and the barons should be consulted on matters affecting them. Childless, he was the longest-living of Henry II's sons to have become king and also the last of the Valois kings. Accordingly, on 23 December 1588, at the Château de Blois, he invited the Duke of Guise to the council chamber where the duke's brother Louis II, Cardinal of Guise, already waited. Under Henry, France named the first Consul of France in Morocco in the person of Guillaume Bérard. Henry III of Navarre succeeded him as Henry IV, the first of the kings of the House of Bourbon. Mark is a history writer based in Italy. It seemed Henry was destined to share his power at both ends of his reign. When did King Henry III die? [30] On returning to France, Henry wanted to order the construction of such facilities at the Louvre and other palaces. In 1576, Henry signed the Edict of Beaulieu, which granted many concessions to the Huguenots. Henry deprived de Montfort's supporters of their lands, but the 'disinherited' fought back until terms were agreed in 1266 for former rebels to buy back their lands. Tomb of Sir William Marshalby Michel Wal (CC BY-SA). On August 1, 1589, Henry III, lodged with his army in Saint-Cloud, Hauts-de-Seine, prepared to attack Paris when a young fanatical Dominican friar named Jacques Clément, carrying false papers, was granted access to deliver important documents to the King. Does Jerry Seinfeld have Parkinson's disease? When did organ music become associated with baseball? He was a grandson of Francis I of France and Claude of France. [21] At the end of May 1573, Henry learned that the Polish szlachta had elected him King of Poland (a country with a large Protestant minority at the time) and political considerations forced him to negotiate an end to the assault. Debatable or disputed rulers are in italics. [29] His failure to return caused Parliament to declare his throne vacant. 2011-05-09 13:09:07 2011-05-09 13:09:07. he fell off a horse when Robert E Lee shot it. In 1578, Henry created the Order of the Holy Spirit to commemorate his becoming first King of Poland and later King of France on the Feast of Pentecost and gave it precedence over the earlier Order of St. Michael, which had lost much of its original prestige by being awarded too frequently and too readily. Henry’s first task, then, was to bring an end to the civil war that blighted his kingdom. His special interests include pottery, architecture, world mythology and discovering the ideas that all civilizations share in common. This unlikely pairing of a child-king and a 70-year old knight would prove to be a winning one. King John died of fever on 18 October 1216 CE when Henry was still only nine years old. The new king would subdue Wales, have a good go at conquering Scotland, embark on what is sometimes called the Ninth Crusade (1271-2 CE), and build many fine castles which still survive today, particularly in North Wales. Henry III of England repudiates the Provisions of Oxford. He was his mother's favourite; she called him chers yeux ("precious eyes") and lavished fondness and affection upon him for most of his life. But the king was able to exploit the differences between his opponents and little happened. While still Duke of Anjou, he helped plot the St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre of 1572. How will understanding of attitudes and predisposition enhance teaching? He was born 1st October 1207 to his parents, King John I and Isabella of Angouleme. Answer. His mother firmly cautioned her children against such behaviour, and he would never again show any Protestant tendencies. [8], Gary Ferguson found their interpretations unconvincing: "It is difficult to reconcile the king whose use of favourites is so logically strategic with the man who goes to pieces when one of them dies. All of these disappointments exasperated the barons to such an extent that some supported the king’s brother-in-law Simon de Montfort, Earl of Leicester and made him, in effect, co-ruler with Henry. [4], In November 1567, upon the death of Anne de Montmorency, Henry assumed the role of Lieutenant-General of France placing him in nominal control of France's military. What the king lacked in good looks he certainly made up for in longevity. Henry continued to take an active role in the Wars of Religion, and in 1572/1573 led the siege of La Rochelle, a massive military assault on the Huguenot-held city. Parliament was to be held three times a year and the households of the king and queen were also to be reformed. The Catholic League, led by Henry I, Duke of Guise, sought to exclude Protestants from the succession and championed the Catholic Charles, Cardinal of Bourbon, as Henry III's heir. They have concluded that the idea he was homosexual was promoted by his political opponents (both Protestant and Catholic) who used his dislike of war and hunting to depict him as effeminate and undermine his reputation with the French people. In 1261 CE Henry called on the Pope to restore his full control of the kingdom, and he repudiated the Provisions of Oxford in 1262 CE, a decision backed by Louis IX of France. By 1270, the country was sufficiently settled for Edward to set off on crusade. While you will be able to view the content of this page in your current browser, you will not be able to get the full visual experience. On 4 August 1265 CE, at the Battle of Evesham in Worcestershire, Edward was victorious thanks to his having a larger army than his opponent, de Montfort was killed and his body terribly mutilated. If you are referring to King Henry III of England, then he died, as far as we know, of natural causes in 1272 at the ripe old age of 65. Another body, which some historians credit de Montfort as calling a parlement, meaning a body for discussion of policy, was, when knights of the counties and burgesses of certain boroughs were invited to participate, the beginnings of the English Parliament. Following Henry’s death from natural causes in 1272 CE, Prince Edward, who had in some respects been his father’s regent, became Edward I of England (r. 1272-1307 CE). [29] In mid-June 1574, upon learning of the death of his brother Charles IX, Henry left Poland and headed back to France. [19] At this time he was a rallying point for the ultra-Catholics at court, who saw him as an opposition figure to the toleration line being taken by the King, with Charles, Cardinal of Lorraine guiding his council. Richard III, the last English monarch to die fighting, perished at the Battle of Bosworth in 1485. In 1584, the King's youngest brother and heir presumptive, Francis, Duke of Anjou, died.