Threshold treatments ranged from a weekly automatic insecticide application to a very high threshold of 10 tarnished plant bugs per 1.5 row-m on a black drop cloth. Sweep-net and black drop-cloth methods were more efficient than other direct sampling methods, but they were biased toward adults and nymphs, respectively. Sutherland JR, Shrimpton GM, Sturrock RN. Other vegetable crops subject to infestation are artichoke, asparagus, broccoli, cabbage, celery, chard, coriander, corn, cowpea, cucumber, eggplant, endive, escarole, fava bean, fennel, horseradish, lettuce, mustard, onion, parsnip, parsley, pea, pepper, potato, radish, spinach, squash, sweet potato, turnip and watermelon (Capinera 2001). Trap cropping and biological control can provide a sustainable means of controlling insect pests. Generally, apical dominance is lost and weak multiple leaders appear. In fact, over half of the cultivated plant species grown in the United States are listed as host plants for tarnished plant bugs (Capinera 2001). Attacks most deciduous tree fruits. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (r(m)) increased linearly with temperature to a maximum value of 0.1852 at 30°C, and then decreased at 32°C.  The researchers discovered through their results that it is more effective to terminate the insecticide earlier than to delay the administration of the insecticide at the beginning of the four-week period. This insect can be found across North America, from northern Canada to southern Mexico. Tarnished plant bugs from the Hills reared on cotton developed significantly slower than other populations, except those from the Hills reared on artificial diet. Injection with the same volume of a buffer control as well as a buffer control containing BSA at a comparable protein concentration (approximately 6 microg/mL) showed no symptoms. A majority of the hosts are in the subclasses Rosidae and Asteridae. Adult tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois). Young OP. As a conifer pest, Lygus lineolaris attacks loblolly pine Pinus taeda L. (South 1986); and severely damages Choctawhatchee sand pine [Pinus clausa (Chapm.) Ridgeway RL, Gyrisco GG. Economically damaging infestations of Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), tarnished plant bug, were sporadic in Virginia and North Carolina cotton before 2010. On developing peaches, pears and strawberries, lygus bugs cause dimpling that is called catfacing (commonly seen in tomatoes). Lygus bug, also called tarnished plant bug, is a destructive insect that causes serious damage in fruit orchards. Rates of climb toward the skylight cue were approximately equal to 50 cm/s, indicating a capacity for strong, self-directed flight by both species. Cotton has been important to North Carolina for many years, both in agricultural production and in the textile industry. This further identified that these structures play an important role in insect olfaction and taste. Host plants of the tarnished plant bug. Efficiency of volatile baited sticky traps for the Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris) in strawberry fields, Developmental Times and Age-Specific Life Tables for Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae), Reared at Multiple Constant Temperatures, A single-step multiplex PCR assay for the detection of European Peristenus spp., parasitoids of Lygus spp, Effects of Local and Landscape Factors on Population Dynamics of a Cotton Pest, Tethered and Untethered Flight by Lygus hesperus and Lygus lineolaris (Heteroptera: Miridae), Field Study Investigating Cry51Aa2.834_16 in Cotton for Control of Thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) and Tarnished Plant Bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae), Modelling the potential impact of climate change on future spatial and temporal patterns of biological control agents: Peristenus digoneutis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) as a case study, Micro-injection of Lygus salivary gland proteins to simulate feeding damage in alfalfa and cotton flowers, DETERMINING THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BOLL AGE AND GREEN PLANT BUG FEEDING INJURY TO SOUTH TEXAS COTTON, Diet Selection Exhibited by Juvenile and Adult Lifestages of the Omnivores Western Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus hesperus and Tarnished Plant Bug, Lygus lineolaris, Deconstructing Indian cotton: weather, yields, and suicides, Baseline Susceptibility of Lygus lineolaris (Hemiptera: Miridae) to Novaluron, Oviposition Patterns of Creontiades signatus (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Okra-Leaf and Normal-Leaf Cotton, Injury to Preflowering and Flowering Cotton by Brown Stink Bug and Southern Green Stink Bug, Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Thresholds and Sampling Comparisons for Flowering Cotton in the Midsouthern United States, Systems Approach to Evaluate Tarnished Plant Bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) Management Practices in Virginia and North Carolina Cotton, Actual and Simulated Injury of Creontiades signatus (Heteroptera: Miridae) Feeding on Cotton Bolls, Development and Population Growth of Lygus hesperus on Selected Weed Hosts, Artificial Diet and Cotton in the Laboratory, A GIS-based approach for areawide pest management: The scales of Lygus hesperus movements to cotton from alfalfa, weeds, and cotton, Pyrosequencing of the adult tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris, And characterization of messages important in metabolism and development, Spatio-Temporal, Genotypic, and Environmental Effects on Plant Soluble Protein and Digestible Carbohydrate Content: Implications for Insect Herbivores with Cotton as an Exemplar, Seasonality and species composition of Peristenus (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) species, and Lygus (Hemiptera: Miridae) species parasitism in southern Alberta, Canada, Frequency and Abundance of Selected Early-Season Insect Pests of Cotton, Erratum to: Volatiles from Intact and Lygus-Damaged Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. The use of insecticides at planting has been a common crop management practice in cotton for several decades. Use 10-inch squares of white material coated with Tanglefoot or petroleum jelly. Insecticides have adverse effects on human health and the environment. Overwintered adults are much darker than the summer adults (Capinera 2001). Saliva is known to play a crucial role in tarnished plant bug (TPB, Lygus lineolaris [Palisot de Beauvois]) feeding. Weed Management - Control weeds and fall plant debris in and around gardens and orchards to reduce TPB egg laying and overwintering sites. Besides alfalfa, several weed species can also contribute to the increasing population of Lygus bug in cotton fields (Fleischer & Gaylor, 1988;Snodgrass et al., 1984; ... 5,6 The tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) (Hemiptera: Miridae), has been a serious economic pest in cotton grown throughout the midsouthern USA for several decades. or the whole bud aborts, Damage symptoms on most host plants attributed to Lygus bugs include leaf ragging, brown, discolored tissue, Haseman L. 1918. Wood, W., Gore, J., Catchot, A., Cook, D., Dodds, D., Krutz, L. J. , Although traps are widely used to collect TPB, sweep nets are also effective in capturing these insects due their small size and tendency to rest on plant leaves. Efficacy data (LC50) are needed to evaluate L. lineolaris susceptibility and resistance levels (RR50) to commonly used and recommended insecticides for managing this pest in the southeastern USA. Alfalfa and cotton flowers were pierced with small glass capillaries of an overall size and shape similar to that of Lygus stylets, and injected with small quantities (6 to 100 nL) of solutions that contained Lygus salivary enzymes. This has led to a lack of control of mirids on Bt cotton due to the reduction in broad-spectrum insecticide use and consequently to a transformation of a minor pest to a main one. Several insecticides are available to control populations of Lygus lineolaris. Photograph by Scott Bauer, USDA. Capinera JL. Foliar insecticide use has increased dramatically in response.