This Friday, 13 November is World Kindness Day, an awareness day launched in 1998 with the aim of encouraging benevolent acts by individuals, organizations, and countries. Kamphoefner, Walter D. "German-Americans and Civil War Politics: A Reconsideration of the Ethnocultural Thesis.". Even more important, the hundreds of new banks that were allowed to open were required to purchase government bonds. Fieldworks: Temporary fortifications put up by an army in the field. [65] Western Missouri was the scene of brutal guerrilla warfare during the Civil War. See image ». A carbine's barrel is several inches shorter than a regular rifle-musket. "Who Fought for the North in the Civil War? However, these crackers became almost rock solid once they went stale. While the soldiers themselves were African American, officers were white. Fluid builds up in the tissues and causes limbs to swell up horribly. Green Troops: Phrase used to describe soldiers who were either new to the military or had never fought in a battle before. See image », U.S.C.T. Parole: A pledge by a prisoner of war or a defeated soldier not to bear arms. Later waves enlisted for three years. (Sherman in Georgia or Sheridan in the Shenandoah Valley, for example. It was fought between the secessionist Southern states, called the Confederacy, and the remaining parts of the United States, called the Union. [43] Horses were needed for cavalry and artillery. Accordingly, the Civil War and Reconstruction appeared as a monumental crisis and threat. (Percussion means striking—a drum is a percussion instrument and a gun that uses a hammer to strike a cap is a percussion arm.). “Peculiar Institution”: Another term for slavery in the South. Anderson, J. L. "The Vacant Chair on the Farm: Soldier Husbands, Farm Wives, and the Iowa Home Front, 1861-1865,", Bahde, Thomas. Rifle Pit: Similar to what soldiers call a “foxhole” today. Southern Unionists were extensively used as anti-guerrilla paramilitary forces. During the American Civil War, the Federal Government was generally referred to as the Union, although the terms “United States,” “Federals,” the “North,” and “Yankee,” were also used.Supported by 20 Free States and five Border States, the Union was comprised of: Free States Several years ago, a thick sheaf of Civil War letters was discovered in an old barn in upstate New York. It ended up endorsing incompetent but politically correct generals. While business had been slow or depressed in spring 1861 because of war fears and Southern boycotts, by fall business was hiring again, offering young men jobs that were an alternative way to help win the war. Our new online dictionaries for schools provide a safe and appropriate environment for children. Bayonet: (pronounced bay-uh-net) A metal blade, like a long knife or short sword, that could be attached to the end of a musket or rifle-musket and used as a spear or pike in hand-to-hand combat. Indian Territory: The area that is now Oklahoma (except for the panhandle.). The Civil War was traumatic for many, and the nation filled with stories of families who were divided between the two sides. Occasionally ramparts might be constructed of other materials, such as sandbags. Select a subject to preview related courses: What really set the Union apart from the Confederacy, however, wasn't agriculture but industry. [26] The Sanitary Commission collected enormous amounts of statistical data, and opened up the problems of storing information for fast access and mechanically searching for data patterns. The chart above represents a typical late-war Union army structure. Bivouac:  (pronounced BIH-voo-ack) Temporary soldier encampment in which soldiers were provided no shelter other than what could be assembled quickly, such as branches; sleeping in the open. The Union consisted of the Northern states, as well as all the states and territories of the West with the exception of Texas. Reserve(s):  Part(s) of the army which were withheld from fighting during a particular battle but ready and available to fight if necessary. The Majority of our funds go directly to Preservation and Education. The South had resisted policies such as tariffs to promote industry and homestead laws to promote farming because slavery would not benefit; with the South gone, and Northern Democrats very weak in Congress, the Republicans enacted their legislation. While the Confederacy was made up entirely of Southern states, the Union actually had states from multiple regions. There were no antibiotics, so the surgeons prescribed coffee, whiskey, and quinine. No denomination was more active in supporting the Union than the Methodist Episcopal Church. They spent their time drilling. See image». Rout: A crushing defeat where, often, the losers run from the field. 1 company = 50 to 100 men, 10 companies = 1 regiment, about 4 regiments = 1 brigade, 2 to 5 brigades = 1 division, 2 or more divisions = 1 corps, 1 or more corps = 1 army. You want to be able to talk like you're in the Civil War too. For example, the Bald Knobbers were the term for several law-and-order vigilante groups in the Ozarks. See image», Housewife:  Small sewing kit soldiers used to repair their garments. These states were actually slave states which did not declare their secession from the United States. North: Also called the Union or the United States the North was the part of the country that remained loyal to the Federal government during the Civil War. The U.S.C.T.’s were established by General Order Number 143, issued May 22, 1863, and included infantry, cavalry and artillery regiments. For the United States, that moment came in 1861. Angle, Paul M. , and Earl Schenck Miers, eds. The Civil War was a major American war fought from 1861 to 1865. 1 company = 50 to 100 men, 10 companies = 1 regiment, about 4 regiments = 1 brigade, 2 to 5 brigades = 1 division, 2 or more divisions = 1 corps, 1 or more corps = 1 army. The Army learned many lessons and in 1886, it established the Hospital Corps. the manager of the Chicago branch of the US Sanitary Commission, used her newfound organizational skills to mobilize support for women's suffrage after the war. At the same time they passed new taxes to pay for part of the war, and issued large amounts of bonds to pay for the most of the rest. For example, Robert E. Lee's Report Concerning the Attack at Harpers Ferry, written on October 19, 1859, states that Lee arrived on the “night of the 17th instant”. Several pickets would form a rough line in front of the main army's camp.